Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Farmingdale
Oppositional Defiant Disorder is a recognized psychological disorder that is diagnosed in children. Generally speaking, it is normal for children in Farmingdale to be defiant or oppositional toward adults from time to time. Especially in toddlerhood and young adolescence, this constitutes normal stages in psychosocial and cognitive development. Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Farmingdale is distinct from normal childhood disobedience and defiance. Children with oppositional defiant disorder display a consistent and pervasive pattern of angry emotions and defiance of authority that goes beyond what is considered normal. These behavioral problems often interfere significantly with the child’s ability to function at home and at school, and therapy is generally indicated for ODD children in Farmingdale.
Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder
The DSM-V provides the following diagnostic criteria as guidelines for determining whether a child can be said to have oppositional defiant disorder. To qualify for a diagnosis, a child in Farmingdale must show four out of eight of the following signs, on a regular basis, for at least six months.
- Actively refuses to comply with the majority’s requests or with consensus-supported rules
- Deliberately does things to annoy or irritate others
- Feels anger and resentment towards others
- Argues often
- Often blames other people for his or her own mistakes
- Loses temper frequently
- Spiteful or revenge-seeking
- Is touchy, oversensitive, or easily annoyed
Oppositional Defiant Disorder is largely characterized by anger and resentment toward other people, especially toward authority figures. This is often accompanied by frequent and overwrought “temper tantrums”.
What Causes Oppositional Defiant Disorder?
Like most psychological disorders and conditions, Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Farmingdale is most likely the result of a complex interplay between biological, social, environmental, and individual psychological factors. Some personality traits typical of oppositional defiant disorder can be inherited. An example is the tendency toward “externalizing”, or blaming other people or external forces for one’s problems. Other heritable traits involved in ODD include impulsiveness and the tendency toward risk-taking behaviors. Neurobiological studies have found notable differences between the brains of individuals with oppositional defiant disorder and the brains of “normal” or “neurotypical” individuals. Alterations in the brain areas associated with reasoning, judgment, and impulse control in children with ODD is thought to contribute to differences in patterns of behavioral response. Along with neuroanatomical differences, altered neurotransmitter activity probably also plays a role in the neurophysiology of oppositional defiant disorder. These neurological differences can interact with environmental factors, such as a stressful or hostile family environment and low socioeconomic status, to increase the likelihood that a child might develop ODD.
Treating Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Farmingdale
Behaviorally oriented forms of therapy are usually the treatment of choice for oppositional defiant disorder in Farmingdale. To reduce disruptive behaviors in children with ODD, it is important to ensure that negative or undesirable behaviors are no longer reinforced. Behavioral therapies for ODD generally focus on helping children and adolescents with the disorder to recognize defiant or antisocial thoughts and desires and learn to stop themselves from allowing resulting behavior patterns to unintentionally become reinforced. Therapists will also consult with parents, who may be accidentally reinforcing the child’s behavior; in some cases, even a negative parental response can accidentally reinforce the behavior because it is a form of attention. One key element in behavioral therapy for ODD is to use rewards and positive reinforcement for desirable behaviors, rather than focusing on punishing negative behaviors. In addition to behavioral psychotherapy approaches, neurofeedback therapy (available through BrainCore New York) may also prove a promising avenue for treating ODD and other behavioral disorders. Research is increasingly bringing to light the differences in neural oscillations that accompany and underlie brain-based disorders, indicating that it may be possible to identify and correct brainwave dysregulation in order to manage oppositional defiant disorder.